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Thursday, November 26, 2009

SSN 888 Tigershark class Attack Submarine




 
Like other projects in the United States Military, submarine development during the Golden Age fell on severe budget constraints. The United States Navy has constructed some quite effective submarine but some of the new developments made most of the United States designs obsolete. Chief among these were the new alloys and composites that had been developed during this time. A partial solution would be to reinforce the vessels with the new materials but this was not the best solution. New designs using the high strength materials from the keel out would be a much better way. The Tigershark was the product of this new design. The class was only constructed in fairly small numbers and might be considered an experimental design. Still, the Tigershark class was produced in larger numbers than the Sea Wolf class. It was decided that the Navy would go back to fish names for their submarines instead of states like the Virginia class.
The Navy soon developed a completely new submarine known as the Swordfish class. Within just a few years after the USS Tigershark entered the water, construction began on the first of the Swordfish class. Within a decade, the Swordfish class escort submarine became the primary United States fast attack submarine design. Due to the Tigershark being constructed from the new materials, they were retained by the United States Navy and they were the only submarines older than the Swordfish class to be retained and continued to serve in front line roles.
While further advancements in noise reduction were made for the Swordfish, the Tigershark was still a very quiet submarine. One important role was the use of the submarines in escorting slower naval battle groups. This freed up the faster and quieter Swordfish for seek and destroy missions. Their large number of cruise missile launchers made them a favorite for land strikes with the ability to carry special forces for special missions. The Navy planned to completely replace the old submarines around 2110 but the Rifts intervened before this occurred. It is interesting that several of the Tigershark class submarines survived the coming of the Rifts including some which the entire surface force they were protecting was destroyed by the Rifts energies. One of the Tigerfish class, the USS Steelhead, reported to the Ticonderoga what happened with the Battlecruiser Kearsarge. The Kearsarge is considered by some to have started the Rifts storms which engulfed the planet. The submarine had been acting as an outer picket for the Battlecruiser. Several of the Tigersharks that survived the Rifts are still in service with the New Navy. The New Navy has retained the vessels primarily for use in training although they are still commonly used to escort slower submarines including transport submarines. They are also often used to carry messages to their allies.
The Tigershark is similar in construction to the Virginia class submarine and shares features with the newer Swordfish class submarine. Many prototypes for systems carried on the Swordfish were first tested on the Tigerfish. It might be considered to be an intermediate design.
The Tigershark is cigar shaped like most previous submarine classes including the Virginia class. The Swordfish has a more flattened hull design. The sail of the Tigershark does not look like those on previous U.S. designs and looks more like those carried on Russian designs. The Tigershark was design with a fusion reactor instead of the fission reactor carried on the Virginia. The ducted pump jet gets power from the reactors through an electrical transmission system instead of geared turbines. All the features of the Tigershark, including the rubber coating, make the Tigershark a very quiet vessel. The new alloys also make the vessel be able to dive far deeper than previous designs.
The Tigershark has a longer bow than the Virginia class and carries twenty-four cruise missile tubes instead of the twelve on the Virginia class. The Tigershark has four torpedo tubes like the Virginia class although they do carry more torpedoes. The Swordfish class was designed with far more missile launchers and torpedo tubes and has a vast amount of additional firepower. The Tiger is fitted with one laser cannon in a retractable mount on the bow behind the missile launchers. The ship is fitted with decoys for self defense against torpedoes. The sonar systems are not quite as effective as the systems carried on the Swordfish and later classes but are still quite effective.
The submarine was designed with a slightly reduced crew compared to the Virginia class through additional automation. Even so, the boat is still very cramped. Like the Virginia class, the Tigershark was designed to carry a small number of soldiers belonging to special forces. The Navy had planned to replace these vessels with a combination of Swordfish Attack submarines and Greyback class transport submarines.
[Authors Note: While Rifts: Underseas indicates that the New Navy operates only the USS Ticonderoga, Trident class Submersible Carriers, and Stingray and Sea Dragon class submarines, this writeup (and other new Navy Submarine designs) is designed to give the New Navy a larger variety of submarine classes.]

Model Type: SSN-888 Class
Class: Fast Attack Submarine
Crew: 120 total; 10 officers, 10 chief petty officer, 100 enlisted.
Troops: 24
Robots, Power Armors, and Vehicles:
None
M.D.C. by Location:

Torpedo Tubes (4 - Sides of submarine):
100 each

Vertical Cruise Missile Launchers (24, Bow of Submarine):
125 each

Retractable Laser Cannon Turret (1, Bow):
200

Main Sail:
600

[1] Bow Planes (2):
200 each

[2] Pump Jet Propulsor (1):
400

[3] Main Body:
2,500
Notes:
[1] Destroying the submarines bow planes will reduce the submarine's ability to change depths but will not eliminate it. It also makes it difficult for the submarine's crew to control the submarine giving a penalty of -25% to all piloting rolls.
[2] Destroying the submarine's Pump Jet Propulsor causes serious problem. The submarine will no longer be able to use forward momentum and the bow planes to keep the submarine level. It is recommended that ballast takes are immediately blown so submarine comes to surface.
[3] Depleting the M.D.C. of the main body destroys the submarine's structural integrity, causing it to sink. If the submarine is underwater, the entire crew will die unless protected by environmental armors that can withstand the pressure that the submarine is under. If on the surface, there are enough flotation devices and inflatable life rafts to accommodate everyone aboard.
Speed:
Surface: 28.8 mph (25 knots/ 46.3 kph)
Underwater: 41.5 mph (36 knots /66.7 mph)
Maximum Depth: 5,000 feet (1,524 meters)
Maximum Effective Range: Effectively Unlimited due to fusion engines (needs to refuel every 20 years and requires maintenance as well). Ship carries 6 months of supplies on board.
Statistical Data:
Height: 52.7 feet (16.1 meters) not including periscopes and antenna
Width: 36 feet (11.0 meters)
Length: 390 feet (118.9 meters)
Displacement: 6,900 tons standard and 8,100 tons submerged
Cargo: Submarine is very cramped, 12 tons of nonessential equipment and supplies. Each enlisted crew member has a small locker for personal items and uniforms. Ships officers have more space for personal items. Most of the ship's spaces are taken up by extra torpedoes, weapons, and engines.
Power System: Nuclear; average energy life of 20 years. Normally refuels every 10 years
Black Market Price: Not for sale; many nations and organizations would pay hundreds of millions of credits for a new and undamaged Tigerfish class Submarine.
Weapon Systems:
  1. Laser Cannon Turrets (1): This cannon is mounted in front of the main sail and fully retractable under concealing deck plates so that they do not disrupt water flow at high speeds and are useful both underwater and on the surface. The weapon system is used mainly as close defense and against aircraft when on the surface.
    Maximum Effective Range: In Atmosphere: 2 miles (3.2 km) Under Water: 1 mile (1.6 km)
    Mega Damage: Cannon inflicts 2D4x10 MDC
    Rate of fire: 4 Times per melee.
    Payload: Effectively Unlimited.


  2. Four (4) Heavy Torpedo Tubes: On the sides of the submarine are four torpedo tubes. Tubes are 21 inches (533 mm) wide and torpedoes can be used against both surface ships and submarines. For warheads, heavy torpedoes should be treated as having long range missile warheads. Along with standard torpedoes, the launcher can also fire missiles (long or cruise) in special canisters and rocket boosted ASW torpedoes. Submarine carries 44 reloads for torpedoes (in addition to four torpedoes in the tubes) and can carry up to 96 mines in place of torpedoes.
    Maximum Effective Range: 40 miles (64 km)

    Mega Damage: By Heavy torpedo warhead type can fire missiles (Long Range or Cruise) in special canisters as well.
    Rate of fire: One at a time or in volleys of 2, 3, or 4. Reloading takes 1 full melee
    Payload: 4 Total (Has 48 torpedoes for reloads)


  3. Twenty-Four (24) Vertical Launch Cruise Missile Launchers (MK 45 VLS): In the front of the submarine but behind the sonar dome, the submarine has a Vertical Launch Missile System for launching missiles. Missiles are launched in special canisters that enable the missiles to be used in depths down to 300 feet. Most missiles normally carried are fusion (Also smart missiles). The launchers were originally designed to carry Tomahawk missiles but were modified to fire all standard cruise range missiles.
    Maximum Effective Range: As per cruise missile type .
    Mega Damage: As per cruise missile type . Rate of fire: One at a time or in volleys of 2, 4, 8, or 24 and can be fired at multiple target at the same time.
    Payload: 24 cruise missiles total. Submarine carries no reloads

  4. Advanced Decoys (8): The submarine carries eight advance decoys drones. They are a small automated vehicles that creates a false sonar image designed to mimic the submarines sonar signature. It has a small propulsion system that can simulate movement (has a top speed of 10 knots) and maneuvers. If decoys are not destroyed, they can be recovered and repaired. Rifts Earth decoy systems are assumed to not operate against Phase World weapons due to technological difference.
    M.D.C.: 20
    Effects: The decoy has an 80% chance of fooling ordinary non military sonars and non smart guided torpedoes, the decoy has a 50% chance of fooling military level sonars (like those of the Coalition), and the decoy has a 25% chance of fooling advanced military sonars (Like those of the New Navy and Triax) and smart torpedoes.
    Decoys have a duration of 30 minutes (120 melee rounds)
    Maximum Effective Range: Not Applicable
    Rate of fire: Ship can launch one drone per melee.
    Payload: 8 Decoys

  5. Noisemakers: The submarine carries noisemakers to decoy torpedoes. These noisemakers are similar to those used by Coalition submarines. The noisemakers are launched from the middle of the submarine.
    Effect: 50% of decoying normal torpedoes and 20% of decoying smart torpedoes.
    Rate of Fire: 2 at a time (Can be reloaded in one melee)
    Payload: 20 Noisemakers
Special Systems:
The submarine has all systems standard on a robot vehicle plus the following special features:
  • Advanced Hull Sonar System: Range of 60 miles (52.1 nautical miles / 96.6 km). This hull sonar system has both a passive and active system built in. Sonar system can track up to 24 targets at one time and has a +10% to read sensor and weapon system skill rolls. Sonar also has built in communication system and sound pulse system to detect obstacles, objects, vessels and fish (schools and large animals), as well as measure distances and depth.
  • Advanced Towed Array Sonar: The system is basically a long and very sensitive sonar system carried behind the submarine on a long cable. Range of 200 miles (173.7 nautical miles / 321.9 km). This is an incredibly sensitive and is as powerful as the special purpose pre-rifts SURTASS system. This towed array sonar system has both a passive and active system built in. Sonar system can track up to 48 targets at one time.
  • ESM: This system is mounted in mounted in the superstructure and is extended in a similar manner to a periscope. The antenna is very hard to detect both visually and by radar. Can detect another radar system at 125% of the range of the transmitting radar.
  • Quieted propulsion and Anechoic Coating: The ship is designed with a very quiet pump jet propulsor design, the submarine's reactors make very little noise, and the boat is coated by a sonar defeating rubber coating. The submarine is -40% to detect when traveling at less that 20 knots and is at -20% to detect when traveling at greater than that speed  
(@Kitsune).

PICTURES: The Hunt for Lost WWII 'Samurai Subs'


With more time, military experts say, a fleet of revolutionary Japanese super-submarines could have changed the course of World War II.



Some were designed to launch bombers on kamikaze missions against New York City, Washington, D.C., and the Panama Canal. Others were thought to be twice as fast any other submarine used in the war.
None had the chance to execute their stealth missions against the U.S. mainland or critical targets in the Pacific during the war.

But after the war ended and the U.S. Navy seized and surveyed the vessels, it made a drastic decision: Each submarine was taken off the coast of Hawaii in 1946 and shot down to the ocean floor to keep the
 technology from falling into Soviet hands.
For years since, divers have scanned the depths of the Pacific to recover the subs and their technological secrets but to no avail.
Until now.
A National Geographic Program premiering Tuesday documents a team of researchers' successful hunt for the super-submarines, which have not been seen by human eyes for more than 60 years (ABCNews).

Note : 
In this image, the I-401 submarine is shown. 
The I-401 aircraft-carrying submarine could travel one and a half times around the world without refueling.
(Wild Life Productions, National Geographic Channel)

Navy to use dolphins to defend Wash. base

The U.S. Navy said it will soon use specially trained dolphins and sea lions to protect a Trident submarine base in Kitsap County, Wash.

The Navy announced Wednesday the trained animals will be used to stop divers and swimmers from breaching the security of the Naval Base Kitsap-Bangor starting in 2010, the Kitsap (Wash.) Sun reported. Other naval bases currently use marine mammals to discover possible intruders, the Sun said.
The Navy said the bottlenose dolphins and California sea lions to be used are capable of locating such intruders and represent the best way to enhance base security under current security requirements.
The unique metabolism of the dolphins will also allow the animals to withstand the frigid water and air temperatures in the Bangor area during the winter, a Navy analysis indicated.
The Sun reported the dolphins and sea lions to be used at Kitsap-Bangor will not be captured from the wild. Those animals chosen will be trained at the Navy's Marine Mammal Program in San Diego(@UPI).

Wednesday, November 25, 2009

Russia again postpones new Bulava tests




A new test launch of Russia's troubled Bulava submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) will be carried out by the end of 2009, a defense industry source said on Tuesday.
The launch was tentatively scheduled for November 24 but has been postponed for the second time since the latest failure in July.
"The Defense Ministry and the manufacturer still have a number of issues, including technical, to resolve before the Bulava can be tested again sometime by year's end," the source said.
The Bulava's development has been dogged by a series of setbacks and has officially suffered six failures in 11 tests so far.


The latest Bulava failure during the launch from the Dmitry Donskoy nuclear submarine in the North Sea was caused by a defective steering system in its first stage, according to military officials.
The future development of the Bulava has been questioned by some lawmakers and defense industry experts, who have suggested that all efforts should be focused on the existing Sineva SLBM.
But the Russian military has insisted that there is no alternative to the Bulava and pledged to continue testing the missile until it is ready to be put in service with the Navy.
The Bulava (SS-NX-30) SLBM carries up to 10 MIRV warheads and has a range of over 8,000 kilometers (5,000 miles). The three-stage solid-propellant ballistic missile is designed for deployment on Borey class nuclear-powered submarines.
The Bulava, along with Topol-M land-based ballistic missiles, is expected to become the core of Russia's nuclear triad.
MOSCOW, November 24 (RIA Novosti)

Tuesday, November 24, 2009

Portsmouth Naval Shipyard gears up to work on first Virginia class sub



USS Virginia, meet the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard.
The submarine will move into the shipyard Oct. 1, 2010. It's crew will call the Seacoast home until April 2012, while the vessel undergoes a full maintenance overhaul.
"The Virginia-class submarines are the future of the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard, and the arrival of the lead boat in the class next fall will usher in a new era for the shipyard team," said a joint statement by U.S. Sens. Judd Gregg, R-N.H., Jeanne Shaheen, D-N.H., Olympia Snowe, R-Maine, and Susan Collins. R-Maine. "The USS Virginia is the most modern and innovative underwater warship on patrol today. It is only fitting that the Navy will rely on the nation's most capable submarine workforce for this inaugural extended maintenance period. The Navy knows which team to trust to do it right, and which team will set the standard for others to follow."
Virginia's current homeport is Groton, Conn., from which the ship deploys to missions across the globe. It's manned by 155 officers and crew, and is said by the senators to be set to have a direct economic impact of approximately $10.5 million on the York County-Portsmouth region.
Danna Eddy, deputy public affairs officer at the shipyard, wrote in an e-mail to the Herald that shipyard staff is "excited" about the arrival, and ongoing training of the work force and upgrades to existing facilities and equipment will ensure all will be ready by fall 2010. When asked if the sub's stay of roughly 18 months represented Naval support for the facility, Eddy wrote that the Navy's goal was to seek efficient workloads across all four naval shipyards in the United States as the Virginia class maintenance workload continues to grow.
"Portsmouth Naval Shipyard is a vital element of the Navy's submarine maintenance industrial base," Eddy wrote.
Paul O'Connor, president of the Metal Trades Council at the shipyard, said the submarine's arrival is an exciting opportunity for the shipyard, which he said will be performing the "full range" of maintenance on the sub. He noted that the U.S. Navy will be phasing out the Los Angeles class of submarines — which the local shipyard currently overhauls — over the next decade or so, leaving yards that can and have worked on Virginia class submarines with an advantage.
"We're excited about getting this new class of submarine at the shipyard," O'Connor said "That's our future workload."
O'Connor said he could not say what type of maintenance the shipyard would be performing, but said yard workers are preparing to utilize a new, modern and sophisticated machine to perform the work. The yard is also working on a new, approximately $22 million dry dock funded by a federal bill. O'Connor said the dock will not be complete when the Virginia arrives, but will be key for future work on that class of submarine.
"We're heading in the right direction," he said.
According to the Web site of the Federation of American Scientists, the Virginia class is larger than the Los Angeles class and is capable of deploying unmanned underwater vehicles. The Virginia is the first of its class and was originally commissioned in 2004, and the Navy hopes to have a force of at least 18 Virginia class subs by 2015 (seacoastonline).

Italian Mini Submarines

The Naval Special Services Group (SSGN), numbering 1,000 marines, is responsible for conducting unconventional operations at sea and along the shoreline. Delivery or insertion of maritime special forces includes fixed- wing/helicopter low-level parachuting, light craft beaching and underwater conveyance, for which the navy operates at least three Cosmos Class MG110 miniature submarines (SSI) and some swimmer- delivery vehicles.
On the basis of design developed by PN Dockyard, this type of mini submarine has been constructed at PN Dockyard. These mini-submarines can be used for various purposes like attacking enemy units in harbour with Frogmen/Charriots, at sea with torpedoes, at shore installations by commandos etc. other uses include mine laying, defensive barrier in shallow waters, advance pickets duties, intelligence gathering etc.
Although the Italian Navy pioneered the use of human torpedoes (known today as swimmer delivery vehicles or SDVs), in today's Italian Navy there are no midgets. However Cosmos of Livorno has sold a number of midgets abroad. The SX 404 type sold to Pakistan in the early 1970s have been replaced by three [or possibly four] Italian-built SX-756-class midget submarines, delivered in 1988. These displace 40 tons and are capable of diving to a depth of 100m. They can carry six swimmers and two SDVs, as well as 2 tons of explosives (globalsecurity).



Specifications

Length overall
27.28 meters
Height overall
5.59"
Pressure Hull Diameter
2.30"
Pressure Hull Length
19.10"
Displacement
102 tons (surfaced),
110 tons (sub-merged)
Operation Depth
In excess of 100 m
Test Depth
In excess of 100 m
Max. speed (surfaced) 
9 KTS (on diesel engine)
Max. speed (submerged)
6 KTS (on batteries)
Endurance
Over 1000 NM on diesel engine, Over 40 NM on batteries
Complement
14 (6 operators + 8 commandos)
Armament
Torpedo Firing Tubes, Mine Laying Hooks





Spotlight to fall on first Scorpene submarine



KUALA LUMPUR: Next Tuesday, the biggest armada of warships and other vessels in the history of the Langkawi International Maritime and Aerospace Exhibition (Lima '09) will be anchored off Porto Malai.
Ninety-six such vessels from nine countries have confirmed their participation -- roughly three times more than when the exhibition was inaugurated in 1991.

That year, the majority of the 30-odd vessels were anchored, not in Porto Malai, but at the Kuah jetty, and the only foreign participants were the Royal Australian Navy's (RAN) destroyer HMAS Torrens and two Indonesian high-speed patrol craft.

It is a testament to how much the maritime segment has grown that it now boasts of equal billing with the aerospace segment, attracting as wide a range of vessels as the air show attracts aircraft.

The star of this year's maritime show will, without a doubt, be KD Tunku Abdul Rahman, the first of the Royal Malaysian Navy's (RMN) mighty Scorpene submarines.
 

VA-111 Shkval underwater rocket



In 1995 it was revealed that Russia had developed an exceptionally high-speed unguided underwater missile which has no equivalent in the West. Code-named the Shkval (Squall), the new weapon travels at a velocity that would give a targeted vessel very little chance to perform evasive action. The missile has been characterized as a "revenge" weapon, which would be fired along the bearing of an incoming enemy torpedo. The Shkval may be considered a follow-on to the Russian BGT class of evasion torpedoes, which are fired in the direction of an incoming torpedo to try to force an attacking to evade (and hopefully snap the torpedo's guidance wires). The weapon was deployed in the early 1990s, and had been in service for years when the fact of its existence was disclosed.

Development begain in the 1960s, when the Research Institute NII-24 (Chief Designer Mikhail Merkulov) involved in the artillery ammunition research was instructed to launch the development of underwater high-speed missile to fight nuclear-powered submarines. On 14 May 1969, pursuant to a government resolution, NII-24 and GSKB-47 merged into the Research Institute of Applied Hydromechanics (NII PGM), which formed the basis of the present day 'Region' Scientific Production Association. Advances in the development of jet engines and fuel technologies, as well as outstanding results in the research of body motion under cavitation made it possible to design a unique missile with a dived speed much greater than that of conventional torpedoes.
When the suction on the low-pressure side of the propeller blade dips below ambient pressure [atmospheric plus hydrostatic head] the propeller blade cavitates -- a vacuum cavity forms. There is water vapor in the cavity, and the pressure is not a true vacuum, but equal to the vapor pressure of the water. High-speed propellers are often designed to operate in a fully-cavitating (supercavitating) mode. A high speed supercavitating projectile, while moving in the forward direction, rotates inside the cavity. This rotation leads to a series of impacts between the projectile tail and the cavity wall. The impacts affect the trajectory as well as the stability of motion of the projectile. The present paper discusses the in-flight dynamics of such a projectile. Despite the impacts with the cavity wall, the projectile nearly follows a straight line path. The frequency of the impacts between the projectile tail and cavity boundary increases initially, reaches a maximum, and then decreases gradually. The frequency of impacts decreases with the projectile's moment of inertia.

Apparently fired from standard 533mm torpedo tubes, Shkval has a range of about 7,500 yards. The weapon clears the tube at fifty knots, upon which its rocket fires, propelling the missile through the water at 360 kph [about 100 m/sec / 230 mph / 200-knots], three or four times as fast as conventional torpedoes. The solid-rocket propelled "torpedo" achieves high speeds by producing a high-pressure stream of bubbles from its nose and skin, which coats the torpedo in a thin layer of gas and forms a local "envelope" of supercavitating bubbles. Carrying a tactical nuclear warhead initiated by a timer, it would destroy the hostile submarine and the torpedo it fired. The Shkval high-speed underwater missile is guided by an auto-pilot rather than by a homing head as on most torpedoes.There are no evident countermeasures to such a weapon, its employment could put adversary naval forces as a considerable disadvantage. One such scenario is a rapid attack situation wherein a sudden detection of a threat submarine is made, perhaps at relatively short range, requiring an immediate response to achieve weapon on target and to ensure survival. Apparently guidance is a problem, and the initial version of the Shkval was unguided However, the Russians have been advertising a homing version, which runs out at very high speed, then slows to search.A prototype of the modernised "Shkval", which was exhibited at the 1995 international armaments show in Abu Dhabi, was discarded. An improved model was designed with a conventional (non-nuclear) warhead and a guided targeting system, which substantially enhances its combat effectiveness. The first tests of the modernised Shkval torpedo were held by the Russian Pacific Fleet in the spring of 1998.The 'Region' Scientific Production Association has developed developed an export modification of the missile, 'Shkval-E'. Russia began marketing this conventionally armed version of the Shkval high-speed underwater rocket at the IDEX 99 exhibition in Abu Dhabi in early 1999. The concept of operations for this missile requires the crew of a submarine, ship or the coast guard define the target's parameters -- speed, distance and vector -- and feeds the data to the missile's automatic pilot. The missile is fired, achieves its optimum depth and switches on its engines. The missile does not have a homing warhead and follows a computer-generated program.On 05 April 2000 the Russian Federal Security Service [FSB] in Moscow arrested an American businessman, Edmond Pope, and a Russian accomplice, on charges of stealing scientific secrets. A FSB statement said it confiscated "technical drawings of various equipment, recordings of his conversations with Russian citizens relating to their work in the Russian defense industry, and receipts for American dollars received by them." Pope, a retired US Navy captain who spent much of his career working in naval intelligence, was at the time of his arrest the head of a private security firm. On 20 April 2000 the FSB revealed that Pope had been seeking plans the Shkval underwater missile. Pope was detained during an informal contact with a Russian scientist who had participated in the Shkval's creation.The arrest of Daniel Howard Kiely, deputy head of the Applied Research Laboratory at Pennsylvania State University, came almost simultaneously. The laboratory led by Mr. Kiely has for many years been developing torpedoes for US warships and submarines. Professor Kiely had joined Pope in Moscow to offer technical advice and determine the tasks for Pope's further activity. Kiely was interrogated as a witness. His testimony and objects confiscated during the search proved his involvement in Pope's activities. Later the 68-year-old professor was released and allowed to return to the United States.
The objective of the High-Speed Undersea Weaponry project at the US Office of Naval Research is to develop the vehicle guidance, control and maneuvering capabilities for the quick reaction weapons. High-speed weapons could offer an advantage for Anti Submarine Warfare (ASW) "close encounter" scenarios. The overall system response of a high-speed weapon for breaking off engagements with enemy submarines would be measured in seconds, rather than minutes. The High-Speed Undersea Weapons project has three tasks; Vehicle Guidance, Vehicle Control, and Test Bed Development. Vehicle Guidance deals with homing sensors, signal processing, waveform design, and autopilot commands that are used to guide (either autonomously or with external interaction) the weapon to its target. Vehicle control deals with control and maneuvering of the high-speed weapon with emphasis on stabilizing the supercavitating bubble cavity, and optimizing the flow for low drag. Technical issues include instability due to vehicle planing and tail slap, interaction between cavity with propulsion exhaust, and propulsion system transients, including startup. Test Bed Development is an ongoing effort that develops a test platform to test and evaluate S&T candidate systems such as homing systems, vehicle control, and propulsion systems (fas).

SSC Sang-O Class

While the North Korean submarine force reflects dated technology by Western standards, North Korean submarines during wartime would present significant challenges, particularly in coastal areas. North Korea has placed high priority on submarine construction programs which are ongoing despite its economic hardships. An example of this is the SANGO SSC, a simple submarine constructed in two variants, for use in the covert insertion of Special Operations Forces (SOF), mining or antisurface warfare. The submarine comes in two different variants, one with torpedoe tubes and the second without but with the capability to lay mines.
The Sang-O (Shark) class submarines are used for special forces infiltration into South Korea and have at times been captured by ROK forces. According to Janes Fighting Ships 2002-3 Sang-o class submarines began to be constructed in 1991 at Sinpo and were be constructing at 4-6 a year by 1996. Reports indicate that only three were built in 1997 and it is unclear what was produced in the following years.
Bitter enemies since the outbreak of war in 1950, the two Koreas remain divided by the most heavily guarded border in the world - one the North regularly attempts to penetrate. The 18 September 1996 grounding of a North Korean submarine filled with 25 heavily armed commandos - stunned the South as communist soldiers waded ashore 90 miles northeast of Seoul. Deadly skirmishes followed for two months as the commandos attempted to flee north, with most of the team being killed along with several South Korean soldiers and innocent civilians. The North Korean submarine got stranded on some underwater rocks, forcing the crew to get out and try to return to North Korea. This prompted a deadly manhunt that lasted over a month (25 of the 26 crew members were shot dead and the South Korean casualties, civil and military, tallied 17).
Once inside the submarine one really wonders how 26 people could have fit in such a cramped space – let alone live. Following this incident, North Korea officially apologized and assured that he would do all his best to prevent such a thing from happening again. Two years later another submarine, a much smaller Yugo class, was found entangled in South Korean fishing nets
Unification Park is composed of unification security pavilion. It was opened in September 26, 2001. To display the tanks and field artillery additionally in the outdoor exhibition area in the future, revitalization of local economy can be achieved in connection with the Jeongdongjin Sunrise Resort displaying the artillery of the armed forces fro the first time in the nation. In addition to the pavilion of North Korean submarine moved and displayed in the site in May 1998, the retired warship, Jeonbukham, was lent for free to Gangneung in order to be reused as an education arena of national security culture from the navy (Globalsecurity).

Specifications

Displacement:
tons submerged, surfaced
Length
116.5 ft
Beam
12.5 ft
Draft
12.1 ft
Propulsion
Diesel electric
Maximum Speed
7.6 kts surfaced
7.2 kts snorting
8.9 kts submerged
Mines
16?
Torpedoes
2-4 21 inch tubes (533mm) [in some]
Russian Type 53-56 torpedoes
Crew
19 + 6 divers

 

Advanced submarines to join Iran Navy


The Ghadir class submarine is capable of remaining hidden even from advanced radars.

"Two light submarines of the Islamic Republic of Iran's Navy will be operationalized on November 28, i.e. the Navy Day," Commander of the Iranian Army's Navy Rear Admiral Habibollah Sayyari told reporters here in Tehran today.

Iran has been pushing an arms development program in recent years in a bid to reach self-sufficiency.

Iran announced in June that a home-made submarine, named Ghadir 948, had joined the naval brigade of the first naval zone.

In November, Iran announced that its first domestically built Ghadir class submarine launched operation.

The Iranian military said that the submarine can easily evade detection as it is equipped with sonar-evading technology and can fire missiles and torpedoes simultaneously.

Sayyari said in November that Ghadir-class submarines are the second Iranian-built underwater craft outfitted with state-of-the-art electronic equipment.
(english.farsnews)



Specifications
Physical
Displacement (Submerged)
120 tons
Length
29 m
Beam
2.75 m
Performance
Speed (Surfaced)
11 knots
Speed (Submerged)
8 knots
Armament
Torpedo
2 533mm torpedo tubes (also capable of launching mines)



Submarine accident reflects crisis in navy


On the night of November 20, something unusual happened on board the Alrosa, a B-871 submarine that served in Russia's Black Sea Fleet.
According to the available information, the submarine's propulsion system malfunctioned during a training exercise, causing it to break down.
The exact circumstances of the breakdown and its consequences are still unknown; however, the incident with the B-871 submarine once again draws attention to the critical situation developing in the modernisation of the Russian navy's Black Sea Fleet, in particular regarding its submarine forces.
At present, the Black Sea Fleet nominally has two submarines - the B-871 Alrosa from Project 877B, which was commissioned in 1990, and the B-380 Svyatoi Knyaz Georgy, built in 1982 and currently undergoing long-term repairs. In reality, taking into account that the B-871 is now out of commission (for how long is another matter entirely), the Black Sea Fleet does not have any operating submarines.
The situation can justifiably be called critical. There are three Project 677 diesel subs currently under construction for the Russian navy. The prototype Project-677 submarine, Sankt Peterburg, was launched in 2005. The submarines of this project were intended to replace the Project 877 submarines, which are Warsaw Pact relics manufactured in Soviet times.
But there were problems with the commissioning of the new submarine. The submarine was supposed to be launched back in 2007, but the navy has not approved it yet. A number of experts hold that this is evidence of serious problems with both the submarine and the project as a whole.
The critical nature of the situation has allegedly led the Russian navy to look into augmenting the fleet by buying Project 212 German submarines. It is hard to say how realistic this scenario is, but even talk of possibly buying foreign submarines clearly shows that there is a crisis in submarine building in Russia, which had always been a leader in the field.
A similar situation is developing with the surface fleet. Extremely long construction times are compounded with the small number of units being built. There are currently three Project-20380 corvettes being built, as well as one Project-22350 frigate and a number of ships of other classes. Construction times for the ships reach, and often exceed, 10 years. If construction of new ships continues at this rate, Russia may be left entirely without a surface fleet by the early to mid-2020s.
There is currently much talk about the possibility of buying a Mistral-class, amphibious assault ship from France and building several more of this type of ship at Russian shipyards. Certainly, new amphibious assault ships would be very useful for the fleet and would expand its capabilities considerably. Aircraft carriers would be even more useful, and there has also been much talk about building them.
Nevertheless, it should be understood that neither the amphibious assault ships, the aircraft carriers, nor the nuclear missile cruisers, that are planned to be reintegrated into the fleet with new weaponry and equipment, will be able to perform in combat without support. This support needs to come from both warships of other classes and the large number of auxiliary vessels and costal services, without which the fleet is merely a paper tiger.
The situation with implementing state defence orders is objectively better than it was 10 years ago. The army is getting new tanks, infantry combat vehicles and armoured personnel carriers. New helicopters are being manufactured and old aircraft are being upgraded. Contracts have been signed for the delivery of new aircraft and many other items. But the navy remains the most underfunded branch of the Russian armed forces. It is experiencing an acute lack of funds both for building new ships and other necessary hardware and for supporting its very existence.
That being said, even a sudden infusion of the necessary funding will not enable the situation to change for the better in the short term. Updating the navy will require sustained and considered efforts by various industries over several decades. Only then can we hope for tangible results. And finally, implementing such measures will require a distinct manifestation of an unwavering political will.
The opinions expressed in this article are the author's and do not necessarily represent those of RIA Novosti.

LaBarge to support Raytheon torpedoes

U.S. company Raytheon has contracted electromechanical solutions provider LaBarge to deliver its torpedo harness technologies.
St. Louis-based LaBarge was selected by Raytheon to support the MK 48 and MK 54 torpedoes programs with its wiring harnesses. LaBarge says production on the $2.6 million contract will begin in January.
According to a news release, the MK 48 is a "heavyweight torpedo designed for anti-submarine and anti-surface warfare … (and) the MK 54 is a lightweight torpedo that can be launched from surface ships, helicopters or planes to track, classify and destroy underwater targets in both deep and shallow water."
The contract, expected to last through December 2011, marks the first award for LaBarge to support the torpedoes programs (Upi news).


Additional Readings
  • Thanks to reader Gregory L. Bender, P.E. of Defense Holdings, Inc. for catching an (incorrect) reference to the Mk48’s use on surface ships. At present, they use smaller Mk46 and Mk50 torpedoes.



British nuclear expert Stephen Ludlam to head Australian Submarine Corporation

A LEADING British expert in nuclear engineering technology, Stephen Ludlam, has been appointed the new head of the Australian Submarine Corporation. 

Mr Ludlam, 56, currently president of Rolls Royce Submarines, was selected after a global search for the new head of Australia's only government-owned prime defence contractor, ASC said today.
The appointment comes at a critical time for the Adelaide-based defence shipbuilder, which is about to start construction of Navy's new Hobart Class Air Warfare destroyers.
ASC is expected to take the lead in construction of the Royal Australian Navy's next generation submarine fleet.
The Defence White Paper blueprint released in May proposed a doubling of the current submarine fleet to 12 bigger and technically more complex boats.
“I am looking forward to building upon the unique skills and expertise already contained within ASC and continue to forge a path for ASC in the Australian naval defence industry,” Mr Ludlam said.
Mr Ludlam has 34 years' experience in the field of naval engineering, holds a Master of Science from Royal Naval College Greenwich and is a Chartered Engineer and Fellow of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers.
Mr Ludlam takes over from acting managing director, Graeme Bulmer, in January (theaustralian news).

Astute submarine arrives at Faslane on the Clyde



The Royal Navy's biggest and most powerful attack submarine has arrived at Faslane on the Clyde.
HMS Astute, which measures nearly 328ft (100m) from bow to stern, set sail from Barrow in Cumbria for its first sea trials on Tuesday.
The vessel can be armed with 38 torpedoes and missiles - more than any previous Royal Navy submarine.
It sailed into the Clyde and up the Gareloch to its new home at the Scottish naval base.


Inside the submarine Astute
The BAE Systems-built vessel is due to go into full service next year.
It will be able to circumnavigate the entire globe underwater and advanced nuclear technology means that it will never need to be refuelled.
The submarine's arrival on the Clyde marks the beginning of a process that will see Faslane become the UK's sole operating submarine base over the next decade.
After touring the Astute, the Minister for Defence Equipment and Support, Quentin Davies, said: "This is a significant milestone for Astute as she arrives for the first time in her homeport of Faslane.
"The Astute class of submarines will deliver a step change in capability for defence in terms of anti-submarine and anti-surface warfare, protecting the deterrent, providing land attack and intelligence gathering.
"Astute will now begin a set of sea trials ahead of her full acceptance with the Royal Navy next year."

Floating jetty
First Sea Lord, Admiral Sir Mark Stanhope, said: "The Astute Class is truly next generation.
"They are immensely powerful vessels and they will form a key part of our future programme, giving the Royal Navy the versatility and technical excellence needed to operate successfully across the globe."
Commodore Chris Hockley, the naval base commander at HM Naval Base Clyde, said: "There has been significant investment and preparations made over several years to prepare us for this occasion.
"The Clyde will become a centre of specialisation for submarines, and, of course, submarine training.
"With the arrival of Astute I cannot think of a more exciting time to be a submariner."
The Royal Navy has already spent £150m on new accommodation for submariners at Faslane.
In May a new £150m floating jetty, the length of two football pitches, was installed at the base to provide berths for the six Astute-class submarines which will eventually be based there (BBC).


'Complacency' led to US sub crash

US Navy investigators have placed the blame for a March 2009 collision in the Gulf on "ineffective and negligent" leadership of the submarine involved.

The crew regularly slept, slouched and listened to music on duty, investigators said

Fifteen sailors were injured when the nuclear-powered USS Hartford collided with the USS New Orleans, a navy ship.
Sleeping, slouching and a radio room with music speakers were tolerated on board the submarine, the report says.
Five submariners would routinely sleep on watch, and the navigator took an exam while listening to his iPod.
The report was obtained by the Navy Times newspaper under a Freedom of Information Act request.
According to the report, the crew of the USS New Orleans - which ruptured an oil tank in the crash in the Strait of Hormuz near Iran - bore no fault for the accident.
Five known 'sleepers'
"Correction of any one of nearly 30 tactical and watchstander errors, or adherence to standard procedures, could have prevented this collision," said Adm John C Harvey, as he endorsed the investigation's findings.
The USS Hartford's commanding officer, Cmdr Ryan Brookhart, was relieved of his duties following the collision. Several other crew members were punished.
The report states that the submarine had five known "sleepers" - sailors who would routinely take a nap on watch. Two of the five were working when the collision happened, but there was no evidence they were asleep.
Helmsmen told investigators they would often "slouch in their seats with one hand on the controls".
However, the report said most of the crew were nevertheless of a superb calibre, and were eager to restore their vessel's standing.
The cost of repairs to the Hartford so far stands at more than $100m (£60m), while $2.3m (£1.3m) worth of damage was caused to the New Orleans (BBC).

Type 094 (Jin Class) Nuclear-Powered Missile Submarine



The Type 094 (also referred to as Type 09-IV, NATO reporting name: Jin class) is the PLA Navy’s second-generation nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine (SSBN), succeeding the Type 092 (Xia class) SSBN of a single hull commissioned in 1983. The Type 094 was designed by CSIC’s Wuhan 2nd Ship Design Institute (also known as 719 Institute) in Wuhan, Hubei Province and built by CSIC’s Bohai Shipbuilding Heavy Industry Co. Ltd. (previously known as Bohai Shipyard) in Huludao, Liaoning Province.

Programme

The development of the Type 094 began in the late 1980s to early 1990s, reportedly with assistance of the Rubin Central Design Bureau for Marine Engineering in St. Petersburg, one of Russia’s primary nuclear submarine designer.
Construction of the first-of-class began in 1999 and the submarine was launched in July 2004. A second hull was launched possibly in 2007 and may be commissioned in 2010. Both submarine have been undergoing sea trials, with no test launching of the ballistic missile from the submarine reported so far. The initial operational capability of the submarines may not come until 2012~2015.
The U.S. Office of Naval Intelligence (ONI) predicted in December 2006 that the PRC will need to build a total of five Type 094 SSBNs in order to maintain a near-continuous at-sea SSBN presence, with at least one boat available and ready for missile launch at all times.
Satellite images have captured the two Type 094 SSBNs docked at the Bohai Shipyard, and one of the submarines was also spotted inside the PLA Navy’s nuclear submarine base at Xiaopingdao, Liaoning Province. In April 2008, Federation of American Scientists (FAS) website revealed that a Type 094 SSBN has been deployed to a newly-built nuclear submarine base near the city of Sanyang in Hainan Island [1].

Design

The Type 094 SSBN bears many similarities with the Type 093 Shang class nuclear-powered attack submarine (SSN), suggesting that the two submarines share the same design baseline. The submarine features a water-drop shape hull, with a pair of fin-mounted hydroplanes and four diving planes.


The dive displacement of the submarine was estimated to be 8,000~9,000 tonnes. The Type 094 has yet approached the performance and capability of modern Russian and Western SSBN designs, especially in quietness and missile number. However, once fully operational, it will offer the PLA Navy with a much more credible sea-based nuclear retaliation capability than that offered by its predecessor Type 092 Xia class.

Missiles

The Type 094 has the capacity to carry 12 submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBM). The JuLang 2 SLBM designed and developed by CASIC 4th Academy is a three-stage, solid-propellant strategic ballistic missile. It is a derivation of the land-based DongFeng 31 (DF-31) intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM). The maximum range of the JuLang 2 was estimated to be 7,000~8,000km, three times that of the first-generation JuLang 1 SLBM used by the Type 092.
Each JuLang 2 can carry a single thermalnuclear warhead of 25~1,000kt yield. Alternatively, the missile was said to be able to carry three or more 90kT multiple independently targetable re-entry vehicles (MIRV),  though this cannot be confirmed.

Torpedoes

The submarine has six 533mm bow torpedo tubes, and carries a total of 12 Yu-3 (SET-65E) torpedoes, which is equipped with both active and passive homing. The torpedo, with a 205kg warhead, has a maximum range of 15km and a top speed of 40kt. Alternatively, the submarine may carry wake-homing anti-surface torpedoes or wire-homing anti-submarine torpedoes.
Sensors
The submarine is fitted with sophisticated sonar systems, including bow-mounted sonar and H/SQC-207 flank-mounted sonar. Three flank-mounted sonar arrays are clearly visible on the hull of the submarine.

Propulsion

The submarine’s propulsion system is believed to be nuclear, turbo-electric arrangement, consisting of one pressurised water reactor (PWR), with one shaft.

Shiplist

No.
Name
Shipyard
Fleet
Launch
IOC
?
?
Bohai
North Sea
2004
?
?
?
Bohai
South Sea?
2007
?
Specifications

Displacement: (Dived) 8,000~9,000t
Missile: 12 X JL-2 SLBM

(sinodefenece)

China’s Noisy Nuclear Submarines

China’s new Jin-class ballistic missile submarine is noisier than the Russian Delta III-class submarines built more than 30 years ago, according to a report produced by the U.S. Navy’s Office of Naval Intelligence (ONI).


The report The People’s Liberation Army Navy: A Modern Navy With Chinese Characteristics, which was first posted on the FAS Secrecy News Blog and has since been removed from the ONI web site, is to my knowledge the first official description made public of Chinese and Russian modern nuclear submarine noise levels.
Force Level
The report shows that China now has two Jin SSBNs, one of which is based at Hainan Island with the South Sea Fleet, along with two Type 093 Shang-class nuclear-powered attack submarines (SSN). The Jin was first described at Hainan in February 2008 and the two Shangs in September 2008. The second Jin SSBN is based at Jianggezhuang with the North Sea Fleet alongside the old Xia-class SSBN and four Han-class SSNs.
The report confirms the existence of the Type 095, a third-generation SSN intended to follow the Type 093 Shang-class. Five Type 095s are expected from around 2015. The Type-95 is estimated to be noisier than the Russian Akula I SSN built 20 years ago.
Missile Range

The ONI report states that the JL-2 sea-launched ballistic missile on the Jin SSBNs has a range of ~4,000 nautical miles (~7,400 km) “is capable of reaching the continental United States from Chinese littorals.” Not quite, unless Chinese littorals extend well into the Sea of Japan. Since the continental United States does not include Alaska and Hawaii, a warhead from a 7,400-km range JL-2 would fall into the sea about 800 km from Seattle. A JL-2 carrying penetration aids in addition to a warhead would presumably have a shorter range.
Alaska would be in range if the JL-2 is launched from the very northern parts of Chinese waters, but Hawaii is out of range unless the missile is launched from a position close to South Korea or Japan. The U.S. Defense Department’s 2009 report to Congress on the Military Power of the People’s Republic of China also shows the range of the JL-2 to be insufficient to target the Continental United States or Hawaii from Chinese waters. The JL-2 instead appears to be a regional weapon with potential mission against Russia and India and U.S. bases in Guam and Japan.
Patrol Levels
The report also states that Chinese submarine patrols have “more than tripled” over the past few years, when compared to the historical levels of the last two decades.
That sounds like a lot, but given that the entire Chinese submarine fleet in those two decades in average conducted fewer than three patrols per year combined, a trippling doesn’t amout to a whole lot for a submarine fleet of 63 submarines. According to data obtained from ONI under FOIA, the patrol number in 2008 was 12.
Since only the most capable of the Chinese attack submarines presumably conduct these patrols away from Chinese waters – and since China has yet to send one of its ballistic missile submarines on patrol – that could mean one or two patrols per year per submarine.
Implications
The ONI report concludes that the Jin SSBN with the JL-2 SLBM gives the PLA Navy its first credible second-strike nuclear capability. The authors must mean in principle, because in a war such noisy submarines would presumably be highly vulnerabe to U.S. or Japanese anti-submarine warfare forces. (The noise level of China’s most modern diesel-electric submarines is another matter; ONI says some are comparable to Russian diesel-electric submarines).
That does raise an interesting question about the Chinese SSBN program: if Chinese leaders are so concerned about the vulnerability of their nuclear deterrent, why base a significant portion of it on a few noisy platforms and send them out to sea where they can be sunk by U.S. attack submarines in a war? And if Chinese planners know that the sea-based deterrent is much more vulnerable than its land-based deterrent, why do they waste money on the SSBN program?
The answer is probably a combination of national prestige and scenarios involving India or Russia that have less capable anti-submarine forces.
source : fas

Dmitry Donskoy submarine prepares for future Bulava missile tests

Russia's Dmitry Donskoy strategic nuclear-powered submarine returned on Wednesday from a short sea test run to prepare for upcoming test launches of the troubled Bulava missile.
"The sub left the base in Severodvinsk on Monday to test the readiness of the equipment for future launches of the Bulava missile," a Severodvinsk administration official said, without specifying the date for the next test of the missile.
The Typhoon-class submarine, based at a naval facility in northern Russia's Severodvinsk, is the only vessel in service with the Russian Navy capable of testing the new Bulava submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM).
The Russian military expects the Bulava, along with Topol-M land-based ballistic missiles, to become the core of Russia's nuclear triad.
However, the Bulava's development has been dogged by a series of setbacks, which has officially suffered six failures in 11 tests.

The latest Bulava failure during the launch from Dmitry Donskoy in the North Sea on July 15 was caused by a defective steering system in its first stage, a defense industry source said on Monday.
The future development of the Bulava has been questioned by some lawmakers and defense industry officials, who have suggested that all efforts should be focused on the existing Sineva SLBM.
But the Russian military has insisted that there is no alternative to the Bulava and pledged to continue testing the missile until it is ready to be put in service with the Navy.
The Bulava (SS-NX-30) SLBM carries up to 10 MIRV warheads and has a range of over 8,000 kilometers (5,000 miles). The three-stage solid-propellant ballistic missile is designed for deployment on Borey-class nuclear-powered submarines.(RIA Novosti)

Next Bulava missile test-launch slated for Nov. 24

Russia's troubled Bulava submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) will be test-fired on November 24, a defense industry source said on Monday.
He said the submarine would be launched from the Dmitry Donskoi nuclear-powered submarine in the North Sea.

The Typhoon-class submarine, based at a naval facility in northern Russia's Severodvinsk, is the only vessel in service with the Russian Navy capable of testing the new missile.
The Bulava was last test-fired from the Dmitry Donskoi in the North Sea on July 15, but self-destructed soon after launch due to a defective steering system in its first stage.
The Russian military expects the Bulava, along with Topol-M land-based ballistic missiles, to become the core of Russia's nuclear triad.
However, the Bulava's development has been dogged by a series of setbacks, which has officially suffered six failures in 11 tests.
But some analysts suggest that in reality the number of failures has been considerably greater. According to Russian military expert Pavel Felgenhauer, of the Bulava's 11 test launches, only one was entirely successful.
The future development of the Bulava has been questioned by some lawmakers and defense industry officials, who have suggested that all efforts should be focused on the existing Sineva SLBM.
But the Russian military has insisted that there is no alternative to the Bulava and pledged to continue testing the missile until it is ready to be put in service with the Navy.
The Bulava (SS-NX-30) SLBM carries up to 10 MIRV warheads and has a range of over 8,000 kilometers (5,000 miles).
 Source : rian.ru

Russian military to get 30 new ICBMs, 3 nuclear subs in 2010

Russia's Armed Forces are to receive 30 new ground and sea-launched ballistic missiles, three nuclear submarines, and an assortment of other weapons, the Russian president said on Thursday.
Dmitry Medvedev said the list would also include "five Iskander [tactical] missile complexes, about 300 modern armored vehicles, 30 helicopters, 28 warplanes, one corvette-class warship, and 11 spacecraft."
In his state-of-the-nation address to parliament, Medvedev stressed provision of advanced weapon systems to the military was a priority.

"There is no room for debate here: These weapons simply must be procured," he said.
He instructed the government to put in place an effective contract system to strike the right balance between arms manufactured for export and for domestic needs.

Russian submarine towed to port after engine malfunction

A Russian diesel-electric submarine from the Black Sea Fleet is being towed to the port of Novorossiisk after suffering an engine malfunction during sea drills, a Black Sea Fleet official said.

The Alrosa, a Kilo class diesel submarine, was on a training exercise in the Black Sea on Saturday when it reportedly experienced some problems with its jet propulsion system.
"The submarine is being towed in a surfaced position to the port of Novorossiisk. Its arrival is expected on Monday. Experts will establish the cause of the malfunction there," the source said.
A Russian Navy spokesman earlier said the situation on the submarine was under control and there was no danger to the crew.
He also said the submarine would continue the drills after the problem is fixed.
Alrosa, commissioned in 1990, is the only submarine in active service with the Black Sea Fleet. It is based at a Russian naval base in Sevastopol on Ukraine's Crimean Peninsula.

Source : rian.ru