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Saturday, January 23, 2010

Submarine Salvatore Todaro, Project 212A

Creation in Germany submarine of project 212 are more likely to mean the beginning of a technological revolution in the field of non-nuclear submarines, since it is the first production by a submarine with a combined power plant in the central part of the diesel-electric plant and an electrochemical generator.

Work on the project 212 were initiated by German firms in 1988. An intergovernmental agreement between Germany and Italy on the joint development and construction of buildings of the project 212 submarines was signed in 1994.
Bookmark submarine for the Navy of Italy S526 "Salvatore Todaro" was held in 1999, the second boat was laid in 2000. It is planned that in the future for the Navy of Italy will be ordered two more submarines of this type.

Construction Project 212 submarine is traditional for German submarines. Durable housing consists of two cylindrical sections of different diameters, connected by a short conical section. In the forward torpedo tubes are placed with the systems of fire, batteries, central office, premises and systems of the crew. In the connection section contains the fuel cell stack of polymer electrolyte membranes. In the stern section of smaller diameter are the main modules of power plant, which operates automatically and when working in normal mode does not require maintenance personnel. Main ballast tanks are located in the fore and aft ends of the outer hull. ? In the aft located also shockproof containers with liquid oxygen and steel tanks with a source of hydrogen - metal hydride.

New in the construction of the German submarines are the location of hydroplanes on fence cutting and application of X-shaped stern rudders for better handling the boat submerged.

The main feature of the power plant is included in its composition electrochemical generator, the fuel cell modules which when connecting the hydrogen and oxygen released electrical energy. This energy conversion takes place silently, and the only byproduct of the reaction is distilled water, which is easy enough to find use in a submarine.

By the criteria of efficacy and safety of hydrogen, it was decided to hold a bound state in the form of metal hydride (special alloy metal in combination with hydrogen) and oxygen - in liquefied form in special containers between light and robust build submarines.

Consisting of 9 modules electrochemical fuel cell generator has a total capacity of 300 kW (according to other foreign press - 800 kW) and provides motion submarine submerged at a speed of 3 knots for 20 hours with noise figures below the natural noise of the sea.

Despite the obvious advantages of the electrochemical generator, it does not provide the required operational and tactical characteristics of the submarine ocean-class, primarily in the pursuit of high-speed maneuvers in the pursuit or evasion attacks. Therefore, the project 212 submarines are equipped with a hybrid propulsion system (DM), in which, for driving at high speed under the water used batteries or fuel cells, and swimming on the surface - the traditional diesel generator, which is composed of 16-cylinder V-type Diesel MTU series 396 and a synchronous AC generator. Diesel generator is also used to recharge the battery - the traditional element of control submarines.



The battery pack that is installed on the submarine project 212, is performed in two groups, each consisting of 144 lead-acid battery. The battery can provide the movement with a maximum boat speed of 20 knots for several hours. The advantage of the batteries in tandem with the control at the fuel cell is provided that the stable operation of the batteries in optimal conditions and discharge, resulting in their service life increased from 4-6 to 6-8 years.

Reduced frequency of rotation of the blades ensures high efficiency of the propeller and greatly improves the acoustic characteristics of
The boat motor is installed PERMASYN firm Siemens. In the excitation system of this engine used permanent magnets are made on the basis of materials from the rare earth elements. Compared with conventional engines of equal power PERMASYN has 40% less weight and 60% less.

When drafting 212, special attention was paid to reducing noise and other basic physical fields used by ASW forces to detect submarines. To minimize the noise level has a number of constructive solutions. Easy submarine hull has optimal in terms of the hydrodynamic characteristics of the form. To improve the airflow over and therefore reduce hydrodynamic noise all the openings of the outer hull and conning tower fences when moving in a submerged position closed flaps. Decks attached to a robust housing through elastic inserts, all mechanisms are installed on the two-stage soundproof platforms, and the most noisy of them (diesel generator sets, compressors and other) are placed in a soundproof enclosure. Special sound-absorbing coating of the outer hull of the submarine provides its low visibility for active CEO of the enemy.

Durable housing and other constructions of the new boats are made of-magnetic steel, and lightweight body - made of fiberglass, so that PL has an unprecedented low level of magnetic field.

In addition, significantly reduced the visibility of submarines by the thermal field, which is a consequence of high energy conversion efficiency in the work of control. Installing a fuel cell operates at relatively low temperature (80 ° C), and the heat released when the work is used to further maintain the electrochemical reaction. This provides a stable heat balance between the submarine and the environment for a long time. Water - the only reaction product - is used for domestic purposes, and subsequently stored in special tanks. Provided a partial discharge of her overboard, which is believed to be a weak factor signatures to detect submarines.

Armament Project 212A submarines of the Navy of Italy consists of 6 torpedo tubes 533 mm, set in the forward end of the ship. Torpedo tubes are designed for shooting the latest Italian remote-controlled torpedoes WASS A-184 Mod. 3, ensuring the defeat of both surface and underwater targets.

Surprisingly, for such a super modern submarine as Submarine Project 212, is not usual for modern diesel submarines, missiles in the form of anti-ship cruise missiles. These weapons are planning to include in the composition of submarine weapons only in the future.

As in other Germanic submarines, aboard the submarine project 212 can be secured containers with mines. Total so the boat can carry and install the 24 mines. Mines can be loaded in the torpedo tubes - three or four bottom anchor.

For the 212 project is being developed as a unique anti-torpedo defense system known as a TAU-2000 (Torpedo Abwehr Uboot). It will include a container with equipment of sonar countermeasures (GPA) to simulate the primary and secondary acoustic fields submarine, and remote control. Integrated into ASBU MSI-90U system TAU-2000 must receive the data for calculating the parameters of firing and maneuvering devices GPA of sonar and navigation systems submarine. The process of reflection torpedo attack by the GPA is fully automated equipment, provided, however, and manual control system. Containers filled with instruments of the GPA, they plan to install in custom-made add-on submarines (two on each side). Device itself GPA is designed as a torpedo and consists of sections containing the onboard computer, power supply and propulsion system. 2001 ?. Production of the first set of TAU-2000 was scheduled for 2001

According to many experts NATO submarine project 212 has a unique tactical properties due to equip the latest means of target detection, weapons increased range and their integration into an automated system of command and control (ASBU) MSI-90U development of the Norwegian company Norsk Forsvarsteknolgi A / S.

ASBU MSI-90U combines into a single complex all submarine detection system provides a classification and target tracking (up to 25 simultaneously), their distribution among weapons systems EW, and administration of fire and eight torpedo salvo in various combinations. In addition, this system solves the following tasks: threat assessment from the enemy carrying out calculations for the tactical and navigational maneuver calculate the trajectories of propagation of acoustic signals and therefore forecasting range of the acoustical means - both their and the enemy documenting processes and the daily military activity, provision of training of operators.

 In developing ASBU focused on achieving its universality and functional flexibility. For compatibility with the greatest possible number of existing and future weapons systems and technology ASBU MSI-90U has an open architecture and built-in interfaces of different standards (Ethernet, RS-422, NATO STANAG 4156). This should greatly facilitate the process for possible submarine modernization, as well as contribute to a more simple and cheap modification project submarines to meet the requirements of potential export customers.

The operation of all the major submarine systems provided with four multi-function consoles ASBU, located on the perimeter of the central office. The high degree of automation of management processes by boat evidenced by the fact that in everyday conditions running watches will ensure that all three crew members.

The basis of lighting conditions will Submarine sonar system (GAK) DBQS-40 developed by the German company STN Adas Elektronik, whose main components are: passive CEO DBQS-21DG with a cylindrical bow antennas operating in the range 0,3-12 kHz. It is composed of path definition in the passive mode, the distance to the target path signal detection of active CEO and two sensors measuring the intrinsic noise of submarines; passive CEO FAS 3-1 with extended conformal array antennas, located on both sides of the submarine pressure hull. The station operates in the range of 0,01-2,5 kHz and provides an overview of the sectors 45-135 ° right and left sides, as well as direction finding targets with an accuracy of 1 °; passive CEO TAS-3 towed with an extended antenna, operating NB range of low and very low frequencies and for finding targets at long distances.

High Frequency Active CEO FMS-52 (MAS) British firm Ferranti-Thomson, which is used to detect mines and underwater navigation. It has four antennas, separated by submarine hull so as to ensure all-round view. The accuracy of direction finding purposes - to 3 °. High potential weapons submarine sonar project 212 in combination with low-noise field its own achieves an optimal balance between a range of target detection and distance at which she herself can be detected. According to western experts, this ratio is even higher than today's low-noise nuclear submarines.

Other means of monitoring the situation Submarine Project 212 include navigation radar Type 1007 British development two periscope (commander SERO-14 and anti-aircraft SERO-15) penetrating type - both the company Zeiss. Commanding periscope is equipped with an optical rangefinder and infrared night vision and anti-aircraft - optical and laser range finders. Optical channels both periscopes were stabilization system and 12-fold increase for high resolution, even with a strong swell. Plans are underway to develop for these devices mast penetrating type with the transfer of information and control commands over a fiber-optic cable; complex electronic intelligence FL-1800U, providing intercept, direction finding, analysis and classification of signals of radio equipment operating in the range of 2-18 GHz series USK-800, operating in the KB-and UHF-band (station antenna systems and complex FL-1800U mounted on the mast of the commander's periscope).

Set communications provide submarines to operate in the HF-, VHF-and SDV-frequency bands, as well as in satellite communication systems.
The Naval Institute Guide to Combat Fleets of the World 2005-2006 The Naval Institute Guide to Combat Fleets of the World 2005-2006

Length: max 57,15, waterline 55,9 m
Width: 7 m
Draft: 7 m
Displacement: 1,460 tons standard above-water, scuba 1,840 m
EC: single-shaft, combined with a full elektrodvizheniem, diesel-generator set MTU 8V183 SE83, 9 sets of electrochemical hydrogen fuel cells for 34 kWatt, one electric power 2400 hp
Speed: surfaced 12 knots, submerged up to 20 knots
Range: 8000 miles at 8 knots (surfaced), 420 miles at a speed of 8 knots submerged
Depth: not less than 300 m
Armament: 6 533 mm torpedo - 12 torpedoes WASS A-184 Mod. 3 or up to 24 minutes
Radar: Navigation radar Kelvin-Hughes 1007
CEO: sonar system CSU-90 - active CEO EFS DBQS-40FTC, board CEO FAS 3-1, determine the distance of the passive PRB PRS 3-15, Station intelligence AN 5039A1, system EFS / Allied Signal FMS-52 fore the active CEO EFS DSQS-21DG, towed passive GAS TAS-3 (Radio-electronic weapons: electronic intelligence station EADS FL-1800U, system start-up decoys HDW-WASS C303 / S Circe - 40 charges
Crew: 27 men (5 officers)
Series: S526
Salvatore Todaro 2005 S526
Salvatore Todaro 2005
Sirce - construction is scheduled for commissioning in 2006